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German physicist who formulated the second law of thermodynamics and is credited with making thermodynamics and is credited with making thermodynamics a science. He also made important contributions to the kinetic theory of gases.


He was a British scientist who played a major role in the development of the law of conservation of energy, the absolute temperature scale ( in degrees kelvin ); the dynamical theory of heat; the mathematical analysis of magnetism and electricity, including the basic ideas for the electromagnetic theory of light.


He was an Austrian physicist whose greatest achievement was the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms such as their masses and forces between then determine the large scale properties of matter such as heat capacity, viscosity and thermal conductivity. the relation between energy and temperature is named in his honour.

JOULE, JAMES PRESCOTT ( 1818-1889 ).

He was a British physicist who discovered, with william thompson ( later Lord Kelvin ) the famous Joule – thompson. expansion effect of real gases. He also laid the foundation for the first law of thermodynamics.

Waals, JOHANNES DIEDERIK VAN DER: ( 1837-1923 )

He was a Dutch physicist who formed a mathematical equation which describes both the gaseous and liquid states of matter.

GALILEO GALILEI ( 1564-1642 ):

He was an Italian Scientist, discovered the principle of inertia, invented the concept of acceleration, studied motion of objects under constant gravitational force, established equality of gravitational and inertial mass; co-inventor of the telescope; first to see mountains on the moon, the satellites of Jupiter and the rings of saturn.

ISAAC NEWTON ( 1692-1727 ):

He was an English scientist; enunciated the basic Laws of Motion; extended the concept of force from terrestrial to celestial phenomena; discovered the Universal law of gravitation; explained Kepler’s Laws of planetary motion ; made basic contribution to study of light, including decomposition of white light into various colours, the phenomenon of Newton’s rings etc. co-inventor of differential calculus.

KEPLER, JOHANNES ( 1571-1630 ):

He was an astronomer, geometer. and physicist of German Origin. He discovered three laws of planetary motion, based on the ainstaking observations of Jycbo Brabe and his coworkers ( including Kepler himself ).

ALBERT EINSTEIN ( 1879-1955 ):

He was a German born physicist. He advanced a series of theories that for the first time asserted the equivalence of mass and energy and gave entirely new concepts of space, time & gravitation. He discovered the famous theory of photo-electric effect for which he got Nobal Prize, He advanced the electromagnetic energy.

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